The concept of an Induction Drive can be considered as the essential propulsive components of this space propulsion system. However, many differences exist between this technology and our current understanding of propulsion. The main difference between this electromagnetic space propulsion system and those that have gone before is there is no real distinction between the engine of the vehicle and the vehicle itself. In a jet, car or rocket the jet engine, internal combustion engine or rocket engine exist as a separate component of the vehicle, which can be removed from the vehicle. An induction drive system, by its very design, entirely dispenses with this engine/vehicle distinction. In the case of Induction Space Drives the vehicle is the engine itself, and the passengers or payload ride, for all intensive purposes, inside the engine.
Electromagnetic levitation device utilizing
simple electromagnetic induction repulsion
Electromagnetic levitation device utilizing
electromagnetic induction repulsion
In order to achieve an induction drive, as much of the mass of the vehicle as possible, must reside within the powerful electromagnetic field created by the vehicle. It is well known the electric field of a capacitor or condensor, resides entirely between the plates composing the capacitor. Likewise, the magnetic field of a torus or toroidal coil, resides entirely with the coil of the toroid. Thus if we need a system for containing an electromagnetic field, some combination of capacitor and toroidal coil are ideally suited to this task.
Magnetic Field of Torus
The entire vehicle should be built, within the capacitive plates producing the electric field component of the propulsion system. In this fashion the electric field applied to these capacitive elements, will effect the entire volume and mass of the vehicle. Again, the vehicle is built entirely within the plates or surfaces from which extend the electric field. Likewise, we wish to have a magnetic field which effects the entire volume of the craft. As a safety issue to possible human occupants, we may not want the full magnetic field strength to effect the entire vehicle. The one inductor drive makes a compromise here, with a larger percentage of the magnetic field being stored within the toroidal coil than in the total remaining volume of the craft. Although the toroid makes the perfect magnetic field containment device we are looking for, there is one drawback to its use. Since it is a closed electrical circuit, it cannot be directly connected to the capacitive elements of the vehicle, as a true LC circuit.
The central pole or main pole or single inductor, serves the purpose of coupling the toroid to the capacitance in the one inductor drive. Any current flow through this single inductor, does produce a magnetic field around the single inductor. The current flow in the single inductor is related to the electrical charge in the capacitive element, thus the strength of electrical field is directly related to the magnetic field strength of the single inductor, as in any capacitor/inductor circuit. However, the single inductor also induces current flow in the toroidal coil surrounding the single inductor. Thus through the single inductor's magnetic coupling to the toroidal coil, transfer of electrical energy can be made to the toroidal coil. The most interesting feature of this arrangement is due to the feature of all toroidal magnetic fields. This energy can be pumped in, but the magnetic field of the toroid cannot leave the toroid, so it can act as a magnetic storage. The magnetic field inside the toroidal coil can be many orders of magnitude greater than that produced by the single inductor alone. Since the magnetic fields of the toroid, single inductor and even the magnetic field produced by the capacitive elements all coincide, their magnetic fields all reinforce one another.
Anyone familiar with capacitive/inductive circuits will immediately realize this device has a natural resonant electromagnetic frequency, as it is exactly the same as a simple resistor,inductor and capacitive (RLC) radio circuit. We can clarify the difference between this circuit and that of a normal radio circuit; In this design the inductive coil is physically inside or in between the capacitive plates, the relative sizes of each being modified to accomplish this. Furthermore, if we were to continue to add other radio elements, such as a rectifier, amplifier and power source as would be required in a functional circuit. The entire functionality of this device, necessitates these elements would also need to reside, within the volume of the capacitive elements. To further clarify this, we can say any electromagnetic induction drive vehicle, cannot be significantly larger in volume, than the capacitive elements creating the induced electric field component. The mass of the vehicle, its power source, navigation, payload, and pilots or occupants, must all be within the electric field created by the vehicle. Since in this example the electrical field is created by two large metal plates, the vehicle would be built within these plates, the capacitive plates themselves defining the volume and shape of the vehicle.
Feynam's Paradox - Electromagnetic Moment of Inertia
We can further analyze the flow of energy in this arrangement. Induction space drives require electrical energy, an amount which depends on the overall efficiency of the design( how much energy is actually converted into propulsive force). Explaining how electrical power is actually used in the craft will show the high efficiencies possible. In order to operate the One Inductor Drive requires a repeated high direct current pulse supplied to the single inductor, so as the top( or one end ) of the single inductor becomes positively charged and the other negatively. This charge is then passed to the capacitive plates. The charging and discharging within the device is akin to the stretching of an elastic membrane and the relaxation or return to normal. In the case of this device the impulses stretch the membrane a little further with each pulse, never allowing it to completely return to normal, so that a high static charge is developed. Although a direct current impulse is supplied to the main pole, the resultant current flow in the single inductor and toroid will end up being an alternating current, at the natural resonance of the system. There will exist in the toroid a standing electromagnetic wave, which can be pumped to great intensity by the magnetic impulses applied from the single inductor ( if these match this natural resonance ). The current carrying capacity of the toroidal coil is the only limiting factor to the amount of electromagnetic energy which can be pumped into it. Using existing technology applied in the manner described, we have the capability to contain huge amounts of electromagnetic energy ( approximately millions of volts and up to 25 T )and at reasonably high frequencies ( 1-1000 MHz ).
Careful re-examination of Mr. Faraday's Simple Mercury Motor leads to a more generalized expression of the Lorentz force..
The key principle to understanding the propulsion of an an induction drive is the Lorentz Force.
The Right Hand Rule
We are not only interested in the creation of a powerful electromagnetic field within the vehicle, but these electromagnetic components must posses a specific spatial orientation as well. As currently defined in the physics community the Lorentz force is defined as, "Any electric field in space will have an associated magnetic field orientated at 90 degrees to it and this arrangement of perpendicular electric and magnetic fields will produce a force, which is itself 90 degrees to both the electric and magnetic field." This is the right hand motor rule of which every physicist or electrician is familiar. To enlighten one further, simply apply the right hand motor rule to the case of a single current carrying conductor in Faraday's simple motor. The force produced in such a simple case is in the same direction as the magnetic field, hence for Faraday's simple motor the wire rotates in the mercury dish. This force exists for every electromagnetic field in the entire Universe.
For example: The predicted direction of this force for the electromagnetic fields of a photon of light, is conveniently in the direction of propagation. This is true even though the electromagnetic field of a photon is alternating.Even though the electric and magnetic fields alternate, the resultant force is unidirectional. This counter-intuitive concept was used by Albert Einstein and Leo Szilard to design an Alternating Current Conduction Pump in which alternating electromagnetic fields produce unidirectional flow. ( Try it with the right hand rule. If you switch the direction of both the electric and magnetic fields, the resultant force will still point in the same direction ) We can see a visual example of this in the following animation. Although the electromagnetic field is in rotation, the Lorentz force produced remains constant and unchanging. This is a special electromagnetic case, of which light is a perfect example.
By applying these electromagnetodynamic or magnetohydrodynamic principles to the one inductor drive, we begin to see how propulsive force is created. The magnetic field in the toroid is essentially traveling in a circular path and the resultant current induced in its windings is like wise in the same circular path. The electric field in the coil is induced always 90 degress out of phase of the magnetic field inducing it ( current lags voltage or vice versa ). So we have a rotating electric field or current and a rotating or circular magnetic field, in which both are 90 degrees out of phase with each other. By calculating the Lorentz force due to this arrangement of electromagnetic fields we deduce the force produced is 90 degrees to both the electric and magnetic components, or the force induced will be in the direction of the central axis of the toroid. It must be clarified here that not all intense electromagnetic fields will produce a propulsive force. It is only when the electric field and magnetic field are perpendicular or ninety degrees out of phase. The arrangement of the electromagnetic field within the vehicles volume, especially the spatial relationship of the electric field to the electromagnetic field, are extremely critical to the inductive drive system. In simple terms, the electric and magnetic fields rotate in the same plane, but one follows the other. We are recreating the exact same field effect as in Figure 1 above, but without distinct magnets or electrical circuits. This is the beauty of the One Inductor Drive. Its simplicity, hides a complicated interplay of electromagnetic fields and forces. If we regress from the One Inductor Drive to a multiple inductor drive system, the rotating electromagnetic field component becomes very obvious. Realize, the One Inductor Drive is a logical simplification of a this multiple induction drive design. Induction drives using multiple inductors are operating on exactly the same propulsion effect as a single inductor drive, but this underlying mechanism is not as obvious from the one inductor design. We can say the One Inductor Drive design uses a much more elegant means to generate the required rotating electromagnetic field.
Since any Lorentz force would be related to the magnetic field intensity and current strength in the toroid, which can be pumped to very high levels, the force produced can be made very intense as well. If the frequencies employed are higher than the hearing threshold of a human, the pulses or device can be made to operate in silence( except for coronal noise or a slight hissing or humming sound ) and the force would appear relatively constant. In operation the device would likewise give of a luminous glow due to the ionization or atmospheric excitement caused by the high potential of the electrostatic field created around the drive system. The goal of the one inductor drive system is to minimize electromagnetic radiation. Although high frequency electromagnetic energy is used to power the system, the device will work most efficiently when this energy is contained within the volume of the system, and not radiated into space. The one inductor drive, utilizes magnetic induction within itself to amplify the power levels, but relies on electrostatic induction to influence the external environment.
Since the electromagnetic field has a body nature, (where it effects all the space it occupies at the speed of light), the electromagnetodynamic force produced is likewise of a body nature( where it affects all mass within the field essentially simultaneously ). In this manner, at the high impulse frequencies and powers, the force becomes very similar to inertia. This demonstrates a relationship between electromagnetism and inertia or gravity. Gravity could thus be considered a special case of the more general Lorentz force of the electromagnetic fields occupying all space/time( especially when the electromagnetic field is traveling in an angular fashion). All photons have a measure of momentum( inertia's simplest unit is the Poynting vector of a photon )and when this single unit of momentum is concentrated sufficiently it becomes mass ( by a form of constructive angular harmonic augmentation ) and therefore a gravitational field will exist.( the electromagnetic field is confined due to a rotational/angular Poynting vector ) Gravity is the attraction of all inertia forces to all other inertial forces, especially when the inertial field in question is significantly dense or of an angular nature.
There is no rewrite of modern physics required to understand and implement this revolutionary form of propulsion. It is based on a generalized understanding of existing electromagnetodynamic theory. Simply put, the device can be said to travel near light speed by becoming like light. The vehicle incorporates the same interactions of fields and forces which allow light to travel so quickly throughout space or an electron so quickly through a wire. The concept of Induction Drive for Space exploration using a specific configuration of electromagnetic components offers a relatively simple means to generate huge propulsive fields suitable for the exploration of extreme distances in space and mastery of gravity. However, it is here noted that the One Inductor Drive represents only one means to create an induction type of space drive. There exist many other methods, some simpler, some more complex which can physically demonstrate this same effect.
A = Signal/Frequency Generator B = Primary Control Circuitry/ Safety / Measurement / Initial Signal Amplification C = Primary Step Up Transformer D = Main Signal Amplification E = Secondary Step Up Transformer ( 1 MV @ 10 KVA, 10KHz- 100MHz, DC Out ) F = Launch Platform/ Base G = Small Test Vehicle H = Input Power from Local Grid J = Operator K = Breakaway Power Supply to Test Vehicle Capable of launching small Sputnik style satelite. Single shot and not recoverable. Test Vehicle does not contain its own power source other than for guidance.
Further Information on this Relationship of Electromagnetic Fields to Momentum
Magnetohydrodynamic Ship Propulsion
Integrated Structural Electrodynamic Propulsion - Voronka
Lorentz Actuated Orbits - Peck
From the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory
Advanced Space Propulsion Based On Vacuum ( Spacetime Metric ) Engineering
The Possibility of Strong Coupling Between Electricity and Gravitation - Takaaki Musha
A Novel Technology of Electric Propulsion
A Poynting Vector/Field Conservation Equation
and Gravity- The Murad-Brandenburg Equation
William J. Cooper's Motional Electric Theory.