### Capacitive/Inductive Circuits

In radio there exists what is termed the "tank circuit" or the "capacitive/inductive tank." This part of the circuit consists of basically two components, a capacitor and an inductor. The capacitance stores and releases the electrical field component while the inductance stores and releases the magnetic field component. An antenna is simply connected to the point connecting the capacitor to the inductor and ground is connected to the point which connects the opposite side of the capacitor to the opposite side of the inductor. As electrical oscillation occurs from one side of the capacitor to the other an electrical oscillation is set up in the antenna. As this electrical oscillation travels first one way through the inductor and then the other way, a magnetic field oscillation occurs. The magnetic field of the inductor contributes to the continued oscillation within the tank by maintaining the flow of current.

It works in the following manner. The electric charge is stored in the capacitance and initializes current flow into the inductor as the charge attempts to neutralize in the capacitance. Once the current reaches its maximum the capacitance is now uncharged and the magnetic field is at maximum. As the magnetic field collapses it recharges the capacitance through its desire to maintain current flow until the capacitor is recharged with the opposite polarity. Once the magnetic field completely collapses the capacitor has reached its maximum charge. The cycle then repeats in the opposite direction causing an alternating electromagnetic field in the antenna. This oscillation can be maintained through the introduction of a resonant signal which has greater power than the losses of the system. Since power transfer is at a maximum to this system only when the input power frequency is the same as the natural harmonic of the tank, a tank can be tuned to a selective frequency. By adjusting the tuning of the tank circuit, selective frequencies can be tuned in.

In most radio systems the goal is reception or transmission of this electromagnetic energy. Many similarities lie between this simple circuit and the main propulsion circuit of the OVAL interstellar device. However the main difference is that the starship is designed for the purpose of ampifying and storing electromagnetic energy , not for transmission or reception. Radiation is considered as a loss to the design of this system.

In order to accomplish this storage with great efficiency the characteristics of two of the vehicles components must be understood. A capacitor when fully charged has very little external electrical field ( depending on how perfectly it is designed). For inductance, it is the toroidial coil which accomplishes the feat of magnetic containment. A perfectly designed toroid had no external magnetic field. Although absolute perfection cannot be achieved, very high efficiencies of internal field containment are possible with a capacitor and toroid. ( higher than 90% )

Thus the OVAL starship uses its capacitive shells and toroidial inductor to store within its own components an alternating electromagnetic field. Due to the designed orientation of the toroid and capacitance a large percentage of the electric field is perpendicular to the magnetic field. this brings into effect the principles of electromagnetodynamics discussed previously. In this manner the vehicle creates a huge resonant electromagnetic tank in which the electric and magnetic fields are physically perpendicular to each other which in turn brings into play the principles of electromagnetodynamics. To continue on the explanation of this systems method of operation a more thorough understanding of the electromagnetodynamics of light is required.

Magnetic Field of a Bar Magnet and Torus

### The Electromagnetic Spectrum

The electromagnetic (EM) spectrum encompasses an infinite band of frequencies and wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation. The light we see with our eyes, and everything form radio waves to x-rays falls within the (EM) spectrum. This link will show two images; one of the various spectrum of light emitted by the sun and where they fall on the ( EM ) spectrum and the other a specific detail of the current division in a small section of the radio spectrum.

Images showing the Electromagnetic Spectrum

The scope and divisions of the EM spectrum are evident from these pictures. More importantly it should be realized any discussion of interstellar travel requires an intimate understanding of light. Light is an electromagnetic wave. All electromagnetic radiation ( light included ) is thought to consist of electromagnetic waves commonly represented by the following graphic:

Where the red "E" lines represent the plane of the electric wave traveling through spacer and the blue "B" lines represent the plane of the magnetic wave traveling through space. (Note however this website denote all electrical fields as blue and all magnetic fields as red, with mechanical field energy in green )
The wave travels in the direction of the "x" axis.

This simple animation demonstrates how an electromagnetic wave is thought to travel through space. The red lines represent the magnetic field lines which exist 90 degrees from the electric field lines in blue. Both the electric and magnetic field lines are 90 degrees from the direction of travel of the wave.

### The Sonic Spectrum

Besides the electromagnetic spectrum there is another complete spectrum which is in need of introduction. The sound, phononic or mechanical wave spectrum. This phononic type of spectrum is considered as the total range of mechanical waveforms which are indirectly related to the electromagnetic spectrum. By indirect relation it is meant they are in proportion to but ninety degrees out of phase to both the electric and magnetic components of the electromagnetic spectrum. Unlike the transverse nature of the electromagnetic waves these mechanical or phononic waveforms are longitudinal in nature.

Presently the sound spectrum covers a relatively small band of frequencies and wavelengths when compared to the electromagnetic spectrum. The electromagnetic spectrum is considered to extend from extremely long wavelengths of kilometers ( less than 1 Hz )or more to extremely short wavelengths of million, millionths of a meter( a million billion Hz ). The sound spectrum is only spoken of as ranging from Infrasound (-100Hz )to Ultrasound ( 1 billion Hz ). Although at present there is always a medium required which can be mechanically manipulated by a sound wave the electromagnetic waves are thought to create their own medium. The current relationships of sound to electromagnetism and the existence of a much broader range of sound waves, phonic type energy or mechanical waves will be in need of some serious revision in the near future.

The suggestion made here is," There is another complete spectrum of logitudinal or mechanical waveforms lying in complete correlation and related to the electromagnetic spectrum." In fact relativity proves that mass and inertia can exist as a distortion or warp of space/time. Thus the framework of relativity lays down the mechanism for vacuum or empty space to propagate gravitational vibrations, which can easily be generalized as mechanical vibrations or mechanical longitudinal waveforms. Although the mathematical characteristics of the medium of space/time are somewhat known and defined scientists are still in the process of developing a method to detect these faint changes in density or gravity. Therefore this concept of a longitudinal spectrum in space/time does not contradict any known physics theories but does introduce a novel way of visualizing the transfer of gravitational and mechanical energy throughout space/time and its exact relationship to electromagnetism. Most recently the theory of " Quantum Loop Gravity " and other unified field theories have begun to explore this very interconnection

Hail the First Sound Lasers - Scientist create the first Saser or Sound laser.

### The Wave/Particle Nature of Light or The Photon/Phonon Nature of Light

The Photon/Phonon or
Wave/Particle Nature of Light

If we apply some these recently discussed priciples of electromagnetodynamics to a photon of light some interesting conclusions and insightful ideas can be revealed.Since a light wave travelling through space, as shown in the previous animation and images, is thought to consist of an electric and a magnetic wave orientated perpendicular to each other. ( 90 degrees out of phase ) then the rules of electromagnetodynamics most assuredly apply to these fields. A photon of light due to its own electromagnetic field will always have an associated dynamic component.

This dynamic component is ninety degrees to both the electric and magnetic components and is represented in physics by the Pyointing vector denoted by the symbol ( S ). It has been proven the mechanical energy or momentum of a photon can be represented by the surface integral of the electromagnetic field of the photon ( S ). A much simpler way to visualize this relationship is to consider the electric field, the magnetic field and the momentum or " Mechanical field " as each occupying one of the three dimensions of space.

Because our Universe is known to be observationally three dimensional there most likely exists three fields of force which define and maintain this dimensionality. Due to the fundamental nature of photons it can be suggested the field of electrical force and the field of magnetic force, which always exist in a two dimensional arrangement in space are what define two of these spatial dimension. The third dimension is indirectly related to the electromagnetic fields and itself occupies the third dimension of space. All regions of space/time, including masses, can be defined in this simple manner, by the sum of the fields occupying that region of space. However it should be pointed out that although two of these fields are electromagntic in nature, if these fields are considered to be co-rotating the external electromagnetic field would be zero.( a special case which would still posses energy or mass and yet appear to posses no electric nor magnetic field ) Another special case would be one in which the resultant force or mechanical wave is circular( as in angular momentum ) with an associated electric or magnetic field but not both.

The following animations demonstrate the relationships between these electromagnetic and mechanical fields.

The Logitudinal
Dynamic/Mechanical
Wave

The Electric Wave

The Magnetic Wave

Graphs of the Three Primary Trigonometry Functions

These fundamental laws of dimensionality and the fields defining them are a simple progression from Maxwell's laws which can be represented by a mathematical animation. The mathematical relationship of the three fields defining all regions of energy and mass in space/time can be represented by the following animation of the wave nature of light.( figure 1) It shows the electric field in blue, the magnetic field in red and the related resultant mechanical moment, gravitational potential or accelerating force in green.

Figure1
Relationship of
electromagnetic fields
to the velocity
in a photon of Light

Thus not only do changing magnetism and changing electric field produce each other ( as per Maxwell's equations ) but a combination of electric field and magnetism produces change or movement of the fields themselves. This can be simplified into the statement, "Any changing electromagnetic field has the requirement of possesing an associated gravitational field." However, as will be shown, a gravitational field can exist independent of any electromagnetic field. Like electric field is associated with static charge, and magnetic field can be associated with static magnetic field, similarly there is an associated static case for gravitational field, mass.

Formula for the magnitude and direction of the longitudinal waveform. Notice the arctan is required to calculate the direction.

"Observation of Static Electromagnetic Angular Momentum in vacuo," Graham and Lahoz, Nature V. 285, May 15, 1980, p.129; "Although this result is to be expected by classical electromagnetism, it leads inexorably to the acceptance of the physical reality of the Poynting vector, even though E and H arise from independent sources. . . . permanent magnets and electrets can be used to build a flywheel of electromagnetic energy steadily flowing in circles in the vacuum gap of a capacitor as if Maxwellâ€™s medium were endowed with a property corresponding to superfluidity." Link

"Engineering the Zero-Point Field and Polarizable Vacuum for Interstellar Flight ", H.E. Puthoff*, S.R. Little, and M. Ibison: "This raises the issue as to whether static (i.e., non-propagating) ExH fields also constitute momentum (as the mathematics would imply), and in particular whether changes in static fields could result in the transfer of momentum to an attached structure. As it turns out, the answer can be yes as illustrated in the example of the Feynman disk paradox. . . . Even though nothing is apparently in motion, if we take the ExH momentum concept seriously, it would appear that there is angular momentum "circulating" about the disk in the static fields. . . ." Link

A Poynting Vector/Field Conservation Equation and Gravity- The Murad-Brandenburg Equation
"This derived Poynting equation uses two different formalisms, and surprisingly a Poynting field may also offer a new path for investigating physics and electrical engineering as well as create consequences for a new methodology to expand advanced propulsion systems."

Video-The Power of Tensor Mathematics
Understand Einstein's Theories Further by Watching this video explaining Tensor's in simple terms.

The simplicity of this solution and the answers it provides has given me confidence this is the real nature of space/time. It provides explanations for many previously unexplained phenomon and allows the long sought Unification of gravitational field and electromagnetic field. Thus one possible definition for gravitational field can be defined as the acceleration producing the propogation of light. As shown by the electromagnetodynamics of the magnetohydrodynamic AC conduction pump, even though an electromagnetic field is an alternating occillation, this electromagnetic occillation will still produce a unidirectional ( although pulsating ) acceleration. This can be demonstrated immediatly using the right hand rule for electromagnetic fields. If the direction of both the magnetic and electric fields are switched, the resultant force will be in the same direction. Counter intuitive, but true nonetheless.

An article about Leo Szilard who worked with Albert Einstein
to develop an electromagnetic pump with no moving parts.

http://www.dannen.com/budatalk.html

The animation( figure 1 ) demonstrates the indirect relationship between the electromagnetic field( in red and blue ) and the Kinetic Energy or motion( in green ). Mathematically the relationship between electromagnetic field and the kinetic energy transformation is easily demonstrated with simple triginometry. The electric wave is the sine wave, the magnetic wave is the cosine wave and the mechanical wave( or velocity ) is the tangent. The boundary defined by the tangent, defines the limits of the kinetic motion of the electromagnetic wave. Using trigonometry it would seem the relationship is direct. ( As the electromagnetic energy increases, the kinetic energy increases. As the electromagnetic energy decrease, the kinetic energy decreases. ) So trigonometry represents the three dimensional nature of the Universe itself. ( This is why it was considered such sacred knowledge by Hermes Trimegistus. ) The two most fundamental forces in nature, are not electromagnetism and gravity, the two most fundamental forces are electromagnetism and a force of motion or kinetic energy. Gravity is a special case of this acceleration, for not all acceleration is due to gravity, so gravity is in no way fundamental to all acceleration. Motion or movement or kinetic energy is more fundamental than gravity.

There are three dimensions, which define any volume in Space. The electric field is one dimension, the magnetic field is one dimension, and there is a third field of force which is one dimension. These three dimensions define the extent and properties of any three dimensional volume of space. Each dimension of space is 90 degrees out of phase with the other two dimensions of space. This is pure trigonometry. The first dimension is the sine, the second dimension is the cosine, and the third dimension is the tangent. Thus the tangent is in complete opposition to the sine and cosine, being 90 degrees out of phase from both.

In fact, as the electromagntic field increases, there must be a corresponding increase in the Space/Time stress in the region of Space/Time effected by this field. The force contributed to the gravitational field is due to stress in Space/Time, but does not itself stress the Space/Time. Mass stresses the Space/Time, due to the kinetic energy which defines this mass. The actual physical geometry of the stress, is electromagnetic in nature. Thus we have a relationship between electromagnetic field and all dynamic motion or kinetic energy. In this context, the gravitational field is a secondary force, due to the motion or acceleration or dynamic movement caused by the electromagnetic field. I hope you see how this concept greatly simplifies our understanding of light( electromagntic field ) and how it propogates through space. It is propogated not through purely electromagnetic action, but through a relationship of electromagnetic action to movement and kinetic energy itself. The speed of light, is a speed limit on electromagnetic stress only.

Maxwell wrote four equations which defined electromagnetic fields. All electromagnetic fields can be mathematically explained with his four formula. They basically say the following:

1. Electric fields start on a charge and extend into space, or to another charge.
2. Magnetic fields are continuous and always have a north and south pole.
3. A changing electric field creates a magnetic field.
4. A changing magnetic field creates an electric field.

Thats a real simple explanation of them, but they are beautiful formulas. Electromagnetodynamics, or the Unified field theory is just an extension of Maxwells equations. It further defines how gravity and matter are related to the electromagnetic field. I haven't worked it all out myself( I am not einstein! ), but it would come down to something like this:

1. Mass is a measure of electromagnetic and kinetic energy.
2. A change in mass is a change in kinetic energy.
3. A change in the kinetic energy is a change in mass.
4. A static electric field must start and end on a mass.
5. A static magnetic field starts and ends on a mass.
6. A change in kinetic energy will not always produce a change in the electromagnetic field.
7. A changing electromagnetic field always produces a change in kinetic energy.
8. A changing magnetic field produces an electric field.
9. A changing electric field produces a magnetic field.
10. Gravity is due to kinetic energy and mass
11. An electromagnetic field always has gravity, because it has kinetic energy

When you consider most of our modern day electrical world is based on Maxwell's laws, electric generation and electric motors. By understanding not only how electromagnetic fields are related to each other, but how electromagnetic fields are related to gravitational fields as well, we open an entire new realm of scientific discovery and advancement.

The kinetic field is longitudinal pressure waves in Space/Time, similar to how sound is a longitudinal pressure wave in air. The particle nature of light is due to the kinetic energy component of the electromagnetic wave.

Speed of Light Related to the
Permeabillity and Permeativity of Free Space
According to Maxwell's Formula

All present wave science seems to point toward this incorporation of a third wave nature to that of light. This idea of the photonic/phononic nature of light is one of the simple unifications required to make this interstellar vehicile operate as designed. The phonon/photon nature of electromagnetic radiation suggests some unique paramaters be incorporated into the starships design, for example it cannot be any size but must follow certain quantum limitations to its overall dimensions and proportions. Another presently unrealized engineering constraint. This concept of the phononic spectrum and the phononic nature of electromagnetic radiation is considered key to the realization of this interstellar propulsion system.

As you wil see be reading the following documents, this is not my idea, nor is it the first time it has been considered. I am mearly trying to bring this complicated science to light, in a less complicated way.

Possibly the most comprehensive evaluation of a link between electromagnetism and gravity in existence to date.
This is a serious mathematical research funded by the United States Air Force to examine the possiblity of creating a new form of propulsion using knowledge of a means to effect gravity through electromagnetism.It is no coincidence this paper discusses the arctan potential.

Electric Propulsion Study
Prepared for
Air Force Space Technology Center

Took me a while to get through this paper. This theory is referenced in the previous paper. This paper is a complete, and entirely successful rewrite of physics from a purely thermodynamic perspective. Again demonstrating a link between what we know of gravitational field and electromagnetic field. This paper has been successfully peer reviewed many times, and yet remains largely unknown.

## Electromagnetodynamics Formula

From The Dynamic Theory - Pharis E. Williams

"V x S+(0.5)o/dt(B^2+E^2)-E x (E-V x B )= 0

This means that interesting energy and momentum flows are expected for E x E tarms and E x V x B terms. In other words, where the electric fields are rapidly changing or where there is a curI (rotation) of the magnetic field reacting with electric fields. (The electric field should be perpendicular to the axis of rotation.) These areas have been exactly where anomalous experimental claims have occurred. The E x E term will be considered in the Biefield-Brown discussion for charging capacitors. The curl term is curious. It may be an expression that may come to bear in rapidly rotating systems of magnets. Notice a rnpidly rotating magnet reacts somewhat like a charge. The E x V x B term is a triple scalar product. It is the same as the divergence of the Poynting vector( S )."

The Dynamic Theory - A New View of Space-Time-Matter
by Pharis E. Williams

That one body may act upon another at a distance through a vacuum, without the mediation of any thing else, by and through which their action and force may be conveyed from one to the other, is to me so great an absurdity, that I believe no man who has in philosophical matters a competent faculty of thinking, can ever fall into it.
- Sir Issac Newton

How to Travel to the Stars Part 5